The Ayurvedic View on Asthma (Śvāsa)

Man standing on a cliff with his arms stretched to his sides
The name for Asthma in Ayurveda sounds just like someone finding it difficult to breath - “Śvāsa” श्वास , pronounced “Shvaa-sa”.
Śvāsa is closely related to other respiratory ailments that are also exemplars of Sanskrit’s unique expression of naming a word based on the sound that which it is describing (onomatopoeia). Namely, these other two ailments are hiccup (“hikkā”) and cough (“kasa”).
Ayurveda’s detailed understanding of the pathology and treatment of Śvāsa goes beyond just asthma, but also dyspnoea (difficult or laboured breathing).

In this article we discuss

The Seriousness of Asthma

There are five main types of asthma in Ayurveda.
According to Ayurveda, asthma, dyspnoea and hiccup are actually very serious diseases that can be deadly, thus need to be attended to at all stages with great care.
"If these are not properly treated at the appropriate time or if the patient indulges in unwholesome regimens, these diseases being exacerbated become fatal like the deadly snake-venom."
~ Caraka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Ch 17, 8-9
But do not fear! 
These diseases are classified into various varieties, which range from mild to serious.
For example, you would be familiar with the odd and harmless hiccup, but there are people who have painful hiccups that wake them up throughout the night every hour, everynight, which can get very serious.
Furthermore, Ayurveda has an extensive treatment protocol for these respiratory ailments.
Taking action on your health, especially with a preventative approach, is key.
Let’s start with understanding the root causes of asthma.

Causative Factors (Hetu) for Asthma

Causative factors that aggravate vāta dosha then specifically may lead to asthma

  1. Exposure to dust, smoke, environmental pollutants or wind;
  2. Residing in cold places and use of cold water for bathing and drinking;
  3. Exercise, sex and walking beyond one’s capacity;
  4. Habitual intake of drying foods, e.g. organic crisps, organic corn chips, chickpeas, millet, caffeine.
  5. Intake of food in deficient or excessive quantities,
  6. Eating meals at irregular times,
  7. Vitiation by āma (undigested food products).
  8. Constipation associated with flatulence (ānāha);
  9. Dryness of the body, (e.g. from electro-magnetic fields, lack of oil application, residing in air-conditioning etc.);
  10. Fasting in excess;
  11. Weakness and injury to vital points of the body (marmas);
  12. Incompatible food combinations (Viruddha Ahara);
  13. Excessive “cleansing “procedures (shodana cikitsa);
  14. As a consequence of diarrhoea, fever, vomiting, coryza, phthisis, consumption, hyper-acidity, upward movement of vata (udāvarta), cholera, alasaka (intestinal torpor), pāndu (anaemia) and poisoning. (1)

Causative factors that aggravate kapha then specifically may lead to asthma

  1. Habitual day-time sleeping (nispāva)
  2. Excessive sesame oil in the diet;
  3. Heavy food;
  4. Excessive intake of fish and meat;
  5. Intake of yoghurt and unboiled milk;
  6. Intake of kapha-aggravating ingredients (heavy, cold, unctuous or greasy food)
  7. Injury to the throat and chest;
  8. Different types of obstruction to the channels (srotas)(1)

Causative factors that aggravate kapha then specifically may lead to asthma

  1. Habitual day-time sleeping (nispāva)
  2. Excessive sesame oil in the diet;
  3. Heavy food;
  4. Excessive intake of fish and meat;
  5. Intake of yoghurt and unboiled milk;
  6. Intake of kapha-aggravating ingredients (heavy, cold, unctuous or greasy food)
  7. Injury to the throat and chest;
  8. Different types of obstruction to the channels (srotas).

Pathology of Asthma

Let’s understand what is (generally) going on:
  1. Vāyu (air) located the chest after afflicting the channels carrying life-force or prana (prānavaha srotas) gets aggravated.
  2. This aggravated vata means biological systems, including respiration, are moving in an agitated and aggravated way.
  3. This stimulates kapha.
  4. Now we have a complex situation of vata, predominantly associated with kapha, (complex because these doshas/biological elements are both opposites) are obstructing the respiratory and water channel (pranavaha and udaka-vaha srotras),
  5. Due to this obstruction, these vitiated doshas re-route off course to circulate all over the body,
  6. This aggravated vāyu being obstructed itself (in the circulatory course), causes śvāsa.
  7. This leads to asthma (śvasa) and hiccup (hikkā). (2)
Sāmānya-Samprapti (General Pathogenesis) of Hikkā and Śvāsa:
1. They both originate from the upper site of pitta sthana (āmāśaya or stomach), (this does not mean pitta is involved)
2. These disease are caused by the simultaneous aggravation of kapha and vāyu.
3. They adversely affect the hrdaya (heart) and all the sapta dhatus (seven main biological tissues).

5 Types of Asthma

There are 5 types of asthma, according to the classical treatise Caraka Samhita:
  1. Mahā-Śvāsa - great respiratory difficulty leaving one feeling intoxicated
  2. Ūrdhva-Śvāsa - prolonged expiration and inability to have inspiration
  3. Chinna-Śvāsa - affliction of prana-vata-srota (respiratory channels) with great distress. Deadly type of asthma.
  4. Tamaka-Śvāsa - vāyu (air) moving in the reverse order pervades the prana-vaha-srota, afflicts the neck and head, and stimulates the phlegm to cause rhinitis. Difficult to lie down. Lungs are weak. This includes two types of śvāsa called Pratamaka and Santamaka Śvāsa
  5. Ksudra-Śvāsa - vāyu mildly aggravated in the GIT leading to mild dyspnoea.

Pre-Symptoms of Asthma (Purva-Rupa of Śvāsa)

1. Constipation with flatulence;
2. Pain in the sides of the chest;
3. Pain in the cardiac region;
4. Reversion (vilomatva) of the respiratory functions (prana). (3)

TREATMENT (CIKITSA)

Foods to Include in Your Diet

1. In general, ingredients which reduce vata and kapha, which are heating (usna virya), and which cause downward motion of vata (vātānulomana).
2. Pippali (long pepper / piper long), good fried with ghee and added to food as a spice
3. Ginger
4. Black pepper
5. Mung beans
6. Moringa leaves - can use as a leafy green. Can used dried if fresh is not available.
7. Neem leaves - can add a little bit with mung dahl. Use dried leaves if fresh not available.
8. Old rice, old wheat or old barley (old grains do not increase kapha as much as new).

Tulsi

Tulsi is known as the “Queen of Herbs” in Ayurveda. It is very effecting for regulating Prana and respiration in the body.
Drink tulsi tea with fresh tulsi leaves or quality tulsi tea bags 1-2x/day.

To read more about the wonderful healing power & benefits of tulsi click HERE.

Foods to Avoid

  1. Cold foods and drink - e.g. cold water or cold milk.
  2. Yoghurt and cheese
  3. Cold fruits, such as fruit straight out the fridge.
  4. Pumpkin without spices.
  5. Bread and pasta in excess.
Pumpkin

Lifestyle Recommendations

Home environment:
  • How is the ventilation in your home? Open your windows more.
Exercise:
  • Ensure you are nasal breathing, not mouth breathing. This way, you are getting oxygen to the lower lobes of the lungs and not stressing out the chest. Learn more about the power and importance of nasal breathing HERE.
  • Swimming - Swimming is one of the exercises where you can mouth breath. Also beware that swimming in cold water or chlorine will aggravate asthma.
Pranayama:
Pranayama is a yogic body of knowledge of breath-work practices to “administer prana (life-force)” to the physiology.
This is very helpful for a variety of diseases, especially asthma.
Alternate Nostril Breathing
There is a bunch of pranayama practices that can be practiced. One of my favourite pranayama practices for a variety of applications is Nadi Shodana, AKA Alternative Nostril Breathing or Anulomana Viloma.
  • Administer Nasika before your pranayama practice for a greater effect.
Nasya:
Nasya is the daily practice of sniffing medicated oil up the nose.
This is included in the Ayurvedic daily routine as a regular practice to lubricate and strengthen the brain and respiratory system.
Sniffing Nasika regularly up prevents asthma and respiratory challenges from escalating.
It can be used to help treat asthma, dyspnoea and other respiratory conditions.
For those with chronic or severe asthma or dyspnoea, start with Nasika oil and once you get the hang of this practice, switch to Special Nasika Oil as this works more on the lungs.
Chest Treatment:
You can massage a pungent medicated oil like MGP Oil into the chest, followed by a heat pack or hot water bottle.

Herbal Remedies Helpful for Asthma

Swasananda Leham:
Improves "rasa and prana" health. Rasa is the plasma, dhatu or tissue, that comes before blood; and prana means "life force" which comes from proper oxygenation.
It is particularly effective for helping coughs and congestion problems.
Prandhara:
Literally meaning “flow of life,” Prandhara helps take care of some of very common problems like headaches, cold-like symptoms, asthma, nasal congestion + much more.
A full steam inhalation with Prandhara can be used during acute respiratory difficulty, at a time when one would usually use a puffer or inhaler. This is not a substitute, and you need to examine your self with the guidance of a quality health practitioner.
For those suffering asthma or respiratory difficulty can regularly inhale + sip prandhara in hot water throughout the day.
Swasakasantak Yog: 
- great for kids + prevent allergies and respiratory difficulties.
Swasakasantak Yog helps support the upper respiratory system and very helpful in nasal congestion, coryza, excess mucous, blocked nose, hay fevers, asthma etc.
Dasmoola Katu Trayadi Kashayam:
A very well known classical Ayurvedic medicine in liquid form. It is widely used in the treatment of respiratory conditions. Particularly good for upper respiratory tract infections. Specifically works on the lungs rather than the upper respiratory system.
Anand Sid Yog:
Anand Sid Yog (Nutritious Immune Boosting Bliss) promotes bala (vital strength), that helps the body fight back disease. It is useful to boost immunity. It enhances overall vitality and helps prevent disease.
It is a powerful anti-oxidant formula that helps strengthen the lungs and helps in cough.
Shodana Vati:
Shodana Vati is one of the best Ayurvedic elixirs to help scavenge   free-radicals, purify toxins out of the body and regulate the metabolism and digestion.
It thus has the potential to play a significant role in gradually eradicating asthma.
Even keeping a shodana vati tablet in the mouth and letting it dissolve can be used as a remedy during respiratory difficulty.
Nasika / Special Nasika:
As stated above.

Food Recipes

Eggplant soup (vārtāka):
Prepared with ginger, long pepper (pippalī), black pepper and ghee. (5)
Medicated Rice or Barley Gruel (Yavāgu):
  1. Boil old rice with hing, rock salt, cumin seeds. You can also use old barley or old wheat.
  2. Boil with 8x water to the amount of grains, and reduce to half.
  3. If you have these therapeutic herbs you can add these while boiling for stronger medicinal effect - pauskara (inula racemose), ativisā (aconitum heterophyllum), citraka and karkata-śrngī (pistacia integerrima / zebrawood). (6)
Rice or Barley Gruel (Yavāgu) with Dasmula:
Dasmula is a classical Ayurvedic preparation meaning “10 roots.”
Cooking rice gruel with the decoction of dasmula is useful in bronchitis, hrdaya roga (heart disease), pain in the sides of the chest, hikkā and śvāsa.
  1. Boil with 8x water to the amount of grains, and reduce to half. (6)

Panchakarma (Purification Therapy)

Pachakarma is Ayurveda’s premier detox and rejuvenation therapy.
Firstly fomentation therapy is administered to loosen up the toxic blockages (ama).
As snow melts over the creepers in the mountain range, on account of hot rays of the sun, so does the stable kapha in the body gets dissolved on account of the heat generated by these fomentation therapies. (4)
Then certain purification procedures are to be administered to eliminate the doshas out of the body.
These Panchakarma procedures are not for everyone, and have to be done under expert Vaidya guidance.
“If the flowing water of a river gets obstructed on its way, then the level of water rises further. 
Similarly, if the channels carrying mobile vāyu (in the chest) get obstructed, then the vāyu located at the point of obstruction gets very much aggravated.
Therefore, the srotas (channels) of vāyu should always be cleansed [by panchakarma]." (7)

Book a Consultation with Dylan

Engage with Dylan to address your specific state of health and condition. You will be provided with a health plan designed for you to be self-sufficient in balancing your health.
  • Click HERE to book your consultation.

Resources

  1. Caraka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Ch 17, (10-16)
  2. Caraka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Ch 17, (17-18 1/2)
  3. Caraka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Ch 17, (18 ½-20)
  4. Caraka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Ch 17, (70 - 76)
  5. Caraka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Ch 17, (94 - 100 1/2)
  6. Caraka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Ch 17, (100 1/2 - 104)
  7. Caraka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, Ch 17 (121-122)

Dhumapana: Smoke Inhalation Therapy

Dylan Smith practicing dhumapana

Smoke Inhalation Indications:

As per Astanga Samgraha of Vaghbata, Sutrasthana, ch. 30.

  • Pains of the head, eyes and ears
  • Ophthalmia and heaviness of the eyes
  • Hemicranial (persistent unilateral headache)
  • Rhinitis, cough, dyspnoea
  • Bad taste in the mouth
  • Excess salivation, disorder of voice, bad smell from the nose and mouth, hiccup, diseases of the throat
  • Toothache, looseness of teeth, loss of appetite
  • Loss of movement of the neck and lower jaw
  • Worms
  • Itching
  • Anaemia
  • Disorders of the skin and hairs
  • Absence of sneezing or excessive sneezing
  • Stupor, excess sleep
  • Asphyxia
  • Diseases of vata and kapha origin affecting the parts of the body above the shoulders.
  • It is also used to strengthen and purify the head, scalp, sense organs and the mind.(2)

Kinds of Smoke Inhalation (Dhuma Prakaras)

Though the smoke is derived from drugs which are sheeta virya (cold energy), yet with contact of fire, it becomes ushna virya (heating energy). So Dhumapana aggravates pitta and rakta (blood).

3 kinds:

  1. Shamama (suppressing) - a.k.a. prayogika and madhyama. - after gandusha, nasya.
  2. Brmhana (strengthening) - a.k.a. snehana and mrdu.
  3. Shodana (purifying) - a.k.a. virechana and tikshna. - bad colds etc.(3)

also:

  1. Kasaghna (anti-coughing)
  2. Vamana (emetic)
  3. Vrana Dhupana (fumigation to ulcers).

Persons Unsuitable for Inhalation (Dhuma Anarha)

  • Those who have undergone purgation therapy, who have been administered an enema,
  • who have kept awake at night
  • who are injured in the head
  • who have drunk honey, curds, milk, wine, gruel mixed with fatty material, poison and (large quantities of) water, who have eaten fish as food
  • those suffering from anaemia, diabetes, enlargement of abdomen, flatulence, upward movement of vata inside the abdomen (reverse peristalsis)
  • blindness, rohinika (a throat disease), and all others during hot season.

Administration of smoke to the above will produce giddiness, fever, headache, difficulty in sensory perception, dryness and ulceration of the palate, feeling as though hot fumes are coming from the throat, vomiting, fainting, bleeding diseases, facial paralysis and even death.(4)

In all these diseases, it is pitta alone or in combination with vata and kapha that gets increased. So keeping this in mind, use of ghee, decoction, nasal medication, application of paste into the mouth, eye-salve, pouring medicated water over the body and others which are mixed with fatty materials or not mixed with them and cold (in nature and feeling) should be used.(5)

Especially the smoke entering to all the channels produces severe pain, flatulence, redness of the eyes, dyspnoea, cough, nasal catarrh and sourness in the alimentary tract.

In such conditions, use of ghee, milk, sugarcane juice, grapes and sugar; producing vomiting by similar drugs, nasal medications and mouth gargles with drugs of pungent and bitter taste should be adopted.(6)

Dhuma Kala - Time of Administration:

Prayogika (Shamana) Dhuma:

At the end of:

  1. the night
  2. elimination of urine
  3. elimination of faeces
  4. cleaning of teeth
  5. sudation therapy
  6. nasal medication
  7. taking of food
  8. surgical operation

Mrdhu (Brmhana) Dhuma

at the end of:

  1. sneezing
  2. sexual intervourse
  3. laughing
  4. sitting for long periods
  5. yawning
  6. elimination of urine
  7. elimination of faeces
  8. washing of teeth
  9. tarpana
  10. putapaka (instilling decoction and juice into the eye)
  11. surgical operation

Tikshna (Shodana) Dhuma:

at the end of:

  1. nasal medication - (such as Nasya Panchakarma).
  2. anjana (collyrium)
  3. vomiting
  4. bath
  5. day sleep

At the above periods of time, there will be a mild increase of vata and kapha (hence ideal time for smoke inhalation).(7)

The smoke that has been inhaled through the mouth should be emitted only throughout the mouth but not through the nose because of the risk of disorders of vision.(11)

Dosage: Inhalation is done twice - once during day and once at night.

Snaihika (lubricating) dhuma should be done in bouts of three or four inhalations at a time and continued till all the channels start exuding fluid. It should be taken only once in a day and night.(13) - ghee is added.

Tikshna dhuma should be inhaled only through the nose, in bouts of four each time or till the person feels lightness of the channels. It should be taken 3 or 4 x in one day and night.

Apana (one inhalation) = Aksepa (inhaling, sucking) and Visarga (exhaling, expelling out).(14)

Kasaghna (anti-cough) dhuma is administered in the following way:

  • Burning coal devoid of smoke is placed in an earthen saucer and fine powder or pills of the drugs are put on the burning coal.
  • Another saucer with a hole in its centre is kept inverted over the first one, so as tallow the smoke only through its holy, to which the smoking tube is attached.
  • The patient is asked to take in the smoke through the mouth only; when chest is filled up completely, he should let it out through the mouth itself.
  • When the drugs are burnt off, some more powder is placed on the fire.
  • The inhalation should be continued till all the doshas are expelled out or till the patient feels lightness of the organs.(15)

 

 

Vamana duma is done in the same manner, but after the patient has taken the drink of thin krisara (porridge).

Even Vrana dhuma (fumigation of ulcers) is done similarly, to cleanse the wound of its exudations and relief from pain.(16) (External application).

Inhalation of smoke therapy properly done, will clear the impurities from the heart, throat and sense organs, produce lightness of the head and mitigation of the doshas and diseases produced by them.(18)

Samana dhuma is indicated to mitigate vata and kapha individually or their combination and also for the healthy.

Brmhana is ideal for (mitigating) vata and Shodana (virechana) for mitigating kapha.(19)

Neem paste + Dhupmapana (fumigation) been applied to shingles.

The Relevance of Dhumapana Today

A lot of people these days are practicing unsafe dhumapana.

The use of pipe and direct smoking is unsafe. Furthermore, most dhumapana recipes call for honey, which is a very complex procedure considering heated honey is poison.

Dhumpana may be promoting the habit of smoking harmful substances and/or excess herbal smoking.

If one wants to practice dhumapana, they can create smoke and indirectly inhale the smoke around them. Herbs like guggulu, sambrani, frankincense (all available in raw form at Vital Veda) can be sprinkled onto coal and inhale as well as topically fumigate onto the body. This is also good to burn in the room where new born babies rest for anti-bacterial action. Also smoke from holy and medicinal woods and substances being burned through Yagya ceremony has medicinal action.

sambrani resin
Dhumapana using Guggulu Resin
guggulu resin

The Relevance of Dhumapana Today

Did you ever try dhumapana? How did you feel afterwards? Comment 👇

External “Basti” – A Unique and Effective Musculoskeletal Treatment

A whopping 80% of Australians and Americans experience back pain.
1 in 7 Australians report back problems.

Unfortunately many folks have become accustomed to this discomfort, and this dull body becomes the norm and they don’t recognise this as an issue, nor act on it. Their cells have lost  the memory of a free and healthy body that is their natural state and their brith right.

This method to treat musculo-skeletal disorders is unique from any other methods out there today.

This keeps getting restated at Vital Veda through the astonishing results we get from patients who undergo this treatment. Some who have lived with pain or discomfort for years and tried so many other therapies.

Other treatment approaches, conventional or alternative medicine, all certainly have relevance and may even be used in congruence with this treatment.

Treatment Process:

  • Firstly a massage is performed over the target site to activate the tissues and prepare the body to openly invite the basti to do its work.
  • Medicated, analgesic oil is “held” by a well (made from flour), localised over the targeted site.
  • The practitioner maintains the oil at a comfortably hot temperature so the oil and the herbs in it can penetrate all layers of skin, deep into tissues of muscle, fat (includes ligaments and tendons), bone, bone marrow and nerves.
  • Stiff and tight muscles will instantly be lubricated and softened. This solves the problems of many issues such as:

Nerve Pain, Slipped Discs, Sciatica, Back Pain:
Pathology (Samprapti): 

  • When muscles get stiff, they loose the ability to expand and contract.
  • Here nerves get compressed and conduction does not pass freely.
  • The energy of movement (Vata) is obstructed and will try to create path with force, thus pain.
  • This may cause a disk to bulge and slip.
  • When the intervertebral disc slips, nerves will touch edges and produce pain. Sometimes manipulation (e.g. soft or deep tissue massage) treatment will tear tissues and can pinch nerves even more.

Solution:

A back Basti counters the roughness, dryness, stiffness and tightness, allowing conduction to pass uninterruptedly, totally free from one neuron to the other.

Various Types of External Bastis

Kati Basti: Lower Back

This is an effective therapeutic treatment for conditions like sciatica, sports injuries, herniated discs, stiff neck, lower and upper back pain.  Includes back massage.

Greeva Basti: Neck & Shoulders

This is an effective therapeutic treatment for conditions like frozen shoulder, sciatica, sports injuries, herniated discs, stiff neck, back pain, migraines. Includes back massage.

Janu (Knee) Basti: Strengthens and Nourishes Knees

Helpful for knee replacements, torn tendons & ligaments, excess fluid, arthritis etc. Clears toxins in the area and can delay surgery. Includes legs massage.

Knee Treatment Sydney

External Basti Treatments for Organs

Chakra & Hridaya Basti: For the Heart and Energy Centre

Hot oil deeply penetrates into the heart and navel chakra for emotional balance, physical heart health, energy and immunity. Begins with torso and back massage to activate body.

Puppus (Lung) Basti: Respiratory System

Any respiratory ailment including asthma, bronchitis, difficulty in breathing, hyperventilation, shallow breathing etc. Begins with torso massage to activate the respiratory tract.

Yakrit (Liver) Basti

Any liver issue, to the cleanse liver, increase functioning of liver, increase blood cell formation, to strengthen liver and prevent further diseases etc.

Chakra Basti by Vital Veda

kati basti trev

greeva basti AlIMG_8572

Testimonials

“I had pain and troubles with my knees for quite a while. At one point I was in excruciating pain for 2 weeks, waiting for Dylan to get back from travel. After just 3 of these treatments, the pain is almost completely gone..I haven’t felt the way I feel, in a hell of a long time.”
~ Sandy during a Janu (Knee) Basti series.

“I recently attended Vital Veda for a series of Janu Basti  (Knee Basti). After suffering with discomfort in my knees and calves for as long as I could remember, the tension and pain has incredibly disappeared since having this treatment. Dylan is learned, thoughtful and combines the treatment with a holistic approach to wellness management. Will be returning for future treatments ASAP!”
~ Justin

“Dylan is a dedicated talented Ayurvedic practitioner who studied under the renowned Raju family in India. He has access to high quality special herbs and traditional Indian medicine. I had lower back issues and completed a series of 7 Basti’s which included massage with medicated oils. The quality of the treatment , the setting , even down to the relaxing whale music, made it a very special experience. Not only has it alleviated my back pain but also gave me a rejuvenated psychological boost.
I don’t hesitate to recommend Dylan who can offer other high quality Ayurvedic treatments that will make you feel on the top of the world. I actually attended a brief mini panchakarma session for a week in India with Bastis but found Dylan’s Bastis to be more effective, this might have to do with his strong healing energy, his intention and use of quality medicated oils.
I only met Dylan through Ayurvedic treatments so sincerely give this review with utmost truthfulness and hope you try it out for yourself, happy healing.”
~ Trevor after a series of “back Basti’s”

Our Treatments are Effective and Unique

The medicated oils used in our treatments contain complex and precious formulations of a vast range of organic, wild crafted and rare herbs. Purified and prepared with love and mantras (primordial sounds) by the Raju Family of Vaidyas.

This ensures safety and enhances a divine potency, and is one of the factors that make our treatments profoundly effective and treasured by so many.

A series of treatments is recommended to administer a more complete and deep effect. However, do one and see how you feel (you’ll probably want more). 

Take home oil is included in external basti treatments.

Contact us to book an appointment and free your body

How to make your own “Basti dough” – Mix 2 cups of wheat flour + 1 Tbsp urad flour + 1 cup water. Mix and knead well.